If it doesn’t get somewhere, it can’t do something.
OK, so we know about the Twin Tasks, the two things that a bullet has to do in order to stop an attacker:
1) It has to get to something the body finds immediately important, and
2) It has to do rapid and significant damage to that thing when it arrives.
Today we’ll be taking a look at Task #1: getting to something important.
Let’s start by pointing out that the user of the bullet must be capable of putting it on a course that will lead it to something important. If the cartridge in question presents too much of a challenge for the shooter to handle with the requisite accuracy, it doesn’t make any difference how “good” the cartridge is! Since a single shot is unlikely to incapacitate an attacker, a shooter needs to be able to control their gun for multiple, combat-accurate shots.
This is only given lip service by trainers and enthusiasts; they’ll repeat the mantra “a hit with a .22 is better than a miss with a .45”, then in the same breath give some arbitrary limit on “acceptable” calibers for self defense. Folks, there are people in this world who do not wish to, or simply cannot, practice to become proficient with a “correct” caliber. When the time comes that they need the weapon, wouldn’t it be better that they possess a bullet that they can send where it really needs to go? Of course!
Step One, then, is pick a cartridge that is within your ability to control for random strings of fire – two, three, four rounds at a time.
Once the bullet is in the air, it has to negotiate all obstacles to reach a vital organ of some sort. This requires that it get through any outer shell (clothing), past the skin (which is a lot tougher than you might believe), and alternating layers of bone and muscle. It has to have what’s known as ‘penetration’.
Penetration is dependent on several things: the weight of the bullet, the diameter (caliber), the velocity, and the shape. If we were to take two bullets of different weight, but of the same caliber and shape and traveling at the same velocity, the heavier one would penetrate further. We can do the same comparison for any of the factors, as long as the others remain the same. If we had two bullets of different shapes – a round nose and a wadcutter – with everything else the same, the more streamlined bullet (the round nose) would penetrate further. Simple, right?
When we look at expanding (softnose or hollowpoint) bullets, which increase their diameter at some point in the target, the situation changes. The increased frontal are of the expanded bullet acts like a parachute, slowing it more rapidly and reducing penetration. Sometimes penetration can be reduced so much that the bullet will not reach anything important, and we’re back to that unreliable psychological incapacitation thing again.
Remember that too much penetration can be as bad as too little. Having a bullet that sails through the target without doing much work, or (worse) encounters another (possibly) innocent target beyond, is not a good thing. Hence it behooves us to have a bullet which demonstrates sufficient penetration, but not an excessive amount.
It’s not uncommon to find a cartridge that, when loaded with streamlined, roundnosed bullets, goes through multiple targets – but when loaded with expanding bullets stops inside the desired one. As it turns out, this behavior has major benefits in terms of terminal effects, which we’ll cover next time.
(To see all of the articles in this series, click on the “Stopping Power” tag!)
-=[ Grant ]=-